Are We Losing The Art Of Conversation?

It struck me today when I was at lunch just how quiet the kitchen was. There were 5 of us all huddled together, a variety of different sandwiches and salads adorning the table, and guess what, we were all looking at our phone screens, flicking and tapping randomly, furiously and laughing all in our own little bubbles.

Tonight I changed a habit. While having my dinner instead of reading the journal. ie or checking out what was happening on Facebook, I turned the phone off, left the tablet in the bag and watched and listened as my two kids laughed and sang along to the film Frozen. My little girl in particular loves this movie and wants to be Elsa, so as soon as the song “Let it go” came on she started to sing without been prompted. She saw me looking at her in pure daddy awe and smiling that proud, that’s my little girl smile, and she gave me a little wave as if to say “thanks for listening to me daddy”

It touched me deeply because had I been engrossed on my phone I would have missed that moment of innate connection between us, where no words were spoken, but my face and body language expressed 100’s of words, emotions, love and pride.

Don’t get me wrong I think the strides we have made in technology are incredible.

I love social media marketing so much that I went back to college by night to get my diploma in Digital Marketing and Facebook and Twitter have both allowed me to stay in contact with great friends who are now in the four corners of the globe.

But I think we need to just now and then take a check that we are controlling our technology not the other way around.

I first started in Marketing when I was 16 in 1987 (oh god I feel old) working in Arnotts department store as a sales assistant.

Social Media was not part of our lives and a phone was something you dialed on the desk by the cash register. At 16 I was thrust into the world of face to face conversation and having to talk to people I did not know.

I had strangers come up and look me in the eye and ask me to help them find the right shirt, jeans or suit. After all I had the white shirt and tie on, so I was the expert in their eyes, although the mother who asked me to measure her little boy for trousers, who I then proceeded to advise that he had a fifty inch waste, would probably beg to differ. I never did get the hang of the measuring tape!!

However, the point I want to make is that when each of these customers came into the shop in person looking for my help I could not text, email, tweet or Facebook them the answer. I had to stand there in person and communicate to them both verbally and with my body language to find out what they needed, solve their problem and ultimately create rapport.

As business has evolved and the technology has increased we seem to be spending less time talking to each other in person and instead we use technology to do the engagement for us.

Just think about how many face to face meetings you now have for reviews or general catch up with a client in person. It probably is very different to what is was 3 to 5 years ago as we now communicate via non face to face methods. I myself have clients who I have spoken to numerous times on the phone or via email but who I have never met in person even though I have tried to get that face to face meeting. Everyone is just too busy it would seem.

This train of thought was further highlighted when I was recently at a networking event and I found it strange just how many people there were conducting online conversations and staring at their phones rather than talking face to face with the other people in the room.

I recently came across a great article entitled, Saving The Lost Art Of Conversation by Megan of the Atlantic, and in this piece she starts to review these very points that I am touching on.

In her article she recounts her interview with Sherry, a hugely respected psychologist and a professor at MIT. Sherry was working on a new book called “Reclaiming Conversation” and from her research she came to the conclusion that we’re talking all the time, in person as well as in texts, in e-mails, over the phone, on Facebook and on Twitter.

Obviously I don’t want to sound like a hypocrite or that the art of conversation is doomed. I know I am using the power of technology to share this post with you, and don’t get me wrong, I do love all the advances and the ideas of what is coming down the line in the future, such as wearable technology, apple I watch, near field communication etc, but let’s not forget that we are social and tactile creatures, and I hope that human interaction and face to face conversation will not die.

I think back to when I was a teenager and all the excitement followed by utter or was it mortification, and then the elation, when after an hours of eye contact and finally plucking up the courage to go over to that girl I fancied in the disco and asking her to dance and she says yes. Oh the joy and then the fear as I realized I can’t dance!!!

That whole scenario obviously would have been completely different and nowhere as emotionally charged or exciting if done by text or tweet.

So I challenge you, as I will be challenging myself each day, to put the phone and tablet down a little more than you do right now and let your other senses do the conversing.

Best Styling Tips For Newly Wedded Brides Who Want To Resume Work

Some of the common questions which pop up in the newly wedded bride’s mind are:

Should I change my dressing style completely?

Should I accessorize differently?

What jewellery should I wear to work?

If you are also facing such problems, then here is a detailed guide for you that will help you understand that how newly wedded brides can style themselves while going to office after the wedding.

Try Skirts or Tunics

If you did not use to wear skirts to the office before, you can give a try to them now after the wedding. Wearing a long skirt with a tank top, or a long fitted tunic can give you a new look. You can pair your skirt with a stylish yet light dupatta or scarf.

Also, you can try more professional look by pairing the pencil and formal skirt with a shirt or top. Here the key to look good is to festoon or enhance your dress with an apt selection of jewellery or accessories.

Look Out For Formal Yet Classy Dresses

These days, you can get a variety of formal outfits which can be worn in the office. You can try some outfits in the pastels because such dresses get enhanced with the accessories and look outstanding. By pairing them with the right set of bright accessories, you can attain a perfect contrasting look.

Wear Ethnic Dresses

One of the range of apparels in which you can get unlimited variety and styles is the ethnic one. You can find an array of kurtas, tunics, kurtis etc., which can be paired with pallazos, leggings as well as denims.

By accessorizing well, you can flaunt your ethnic style in a completely new way. If you don’t want to invest in precious jewellery, you can try fusion jewellery or some funky & colourful pieces of jewellery.

Experiment With The Jewellery

One of the pieces of jewellery that newly wed’s are accustomed to wear is the mangalsutra. But, nowadays, instead of wearing it as a neck piece, the girls prefer stylish and classy mangalsutra worn like a bracelet on the wrist.

Precious Diamond Jewellery

You can choose contemporary, sleek and stylish jewellery pieces made with diamonds like sleek necklaces, earrings, rings and bracelets to enhance your look. Diamond looks good with every dress and gives you a very sophisticated look.

Invest In A Stylish Watch

One of the best ways to enhance your looks and attain a contemporary style is by investing in a stylish watch. A watch is one of the best accessories that can be flaunted with any dress and jewellery, and it will enhance your look dramatically.

With these styling tips, you can completely change your style and look trendy after marriage.

How Car Accident Victims Can Improve Their Cases Before Their First Legal Consultation

Initial Impact

One oft-repeated phrase is, “it’s better read about than experienced for yourself.” Few maxims can better encapsulate what it’s like to be a victim of a car collision.

Like any paradigm shift in someone’s life, it’s often dramatic and sudden. The screeching of wheels, the scream of the unexpected, or the shot of unfamiliar adrenaline.

All such tragic events mark the beginning of a typical personal injury case. For simplicity’s sake, we will discuss a common car accident. This piece explores how a victim of circumstance can take control of their situation, and turn their misfortune into an opportunity to better their case and their chances of reasonable compensation.

Self-Assessment

After the initial shock and twisted metal, victims at the scene may be dazed and confused. Regardless of where you are on the road, examine yourself and passengers for injuries. If there are no visible injuries, do the obvious thing and move your vehicle to a safe location if you are blocking the road.

If anyone is injured, get medical help as soon as possible. Truth be told, calling 911 has the added benefit of documenting the incident for later insurance evaluation purposes. This is because the documentation generated from the call tends to indicate a propensity of a person being truly injured. While it may come across as callused, car accident cases – and other cases involving personal injury – are all about documentation.

Insurance claims representatives will even go so far as to reduce the value of a claim on not going to the emergency room, even if there are later objective findings indicating that an injury occurred. Injuries, such as cervical strain and sprain, tend to appear more than one to two days later after the “shot of adrenaline” wears off. However, it’s the documentation early on that is important.

Interaction With Law Enforcement

If police were summoned by a party contacting 911, documentation will again be generated. It is common that police, in addition to checking for injuries, may cite the at-fault driver for either a crime or a traffic infraction.

Keep in mind that a criminal case is the government (or, in Virginia, the “Commonwealth”) versus the defendant. A criminal case is about seeking justice. On the other hand, a personal injury case is about “being made whole again.” Until a magic wand is invented, that means the “bad guy” paying some form of compensation.

Before law enforcement makes a general “first look” at liability, they will gather evidence – including statements from other drivers and witnesses, as well as obtaining contact information. This information is crucial for a Virginia auto injury or car accident attorney to later help prepare a case.

Keep in mind that the initial police investigation is entirely separate from the civil process, which may, in turn, rely on documentation generated as a result of the crash investigation. Even should an officer believe that a person is at-fault in a collision, the other driver’s insurance company may come to an independent conclusion.

One final point is that calling for help may be legally required in some circumstances. In Virginia, assume that it is required if there is someone that is injured or visible property damage to the vehicles.

Document The Facts For Later

Feel free to be your own detective if you have not yet met with a personal injury lawyer.

Ask for the other driver’s name, address, telephone number, and insurance information. If there are other witnesses to the collision, ask for the same. Take pictures with your cell phone of the accident scene and the driver’s license, if provided.

It is perfectly normal and expected for you to provide your insurance information to the other driver, even if they were at-fault. We highly recommend to clients not to make statements to the other driver’s insurance company. They’re frequently very motivated to assign blame to someone other than their own insured.

Don’t be limited in pictures of property damage of the vehicles. If it’s safe and prudent to do so, take copious amounts of pictures of you and your passenger’s injuries. This includes bruising that may later develop.

By being your own detective, the insurance company for the other driver may not be so quick to turn a blind eye to the blame of their insured. Documenting (if safe and not obstructive) while still at the scene to show the location of the impact, road conditions, and the condition of the vehicles may be critical bits of evidence later that a personal injury attorney can later utilize.

A good law firm will use this evidence to help develop your case into the best it can be under the facts. If you don’t have any of this evidence don’t worry. In most cases a client doesn’t provide this information during initial intake. That said, the more information provided the better.

Seek Medical Treatment

In line with the need to call 911, if necessary, is the simple fact that you need to seek medical treatment if you are hurt in the collision or later develop conditions that didn’t exist the day of the accident.

It is critical that you go to every appointment scheduled with a health provider and do everything that they tell you to do. Top in the playbook of every insurance company is to highlight any and all delays or gaps in treatment and try to use that information to diminish the value of your claim.

This is even true if you don’t have health insurance at the time of the collision. It is highly important that if you don’t have health insurance that you waste no time in getting it. In addition to being legally required at the time of this writing, health insurance may cover tens of thousands (if not millions) of dollars in treatments.

Even if you have the most amazing case, not having health insurance means that the proceeds of any later settlement or trial goes to pay the providers when it could have gone to your pain and suffering that you had to endure as a result of the injuries.

As a slight caveat, under some circumstances the insurance company for the other driver may reduce any settlement offer by the amount paid by insurance. However, this depends on the state and an entirely different analysis. You’ll need to consult with a car accident lawyer in your state to determine if this applies.

Avoid Waiting Until The Last Minute To Seek Necessary Medical Treatment Or Blowing Off Your Appointments If They Are Recommended By A Treating Healthcare Professional

Whether it’s the day after the accident and you were discharged from the Emergency Room or it’s month three of physical therapy or chiropractic care, you need to keep your appointments. We cannot stress this enough.

Car insurance companies for the other driver will even go so far as to unjustly say that you’re faking your injuries. They may resort to this accusation if you stop going to your appointments or blow off treatment all-together before it has run it’s course. Frequently, soft tissue injuries can “flare up” if maintenance treatments do not continue until their natural conclusion.

Once upon a time, it was a socially-acceptable attribute for people to be “tough” and “suck it up” despite pain. That doesn’t appear to be a common thread in today’s negotiations with insurance companies, especially when it comes to auto-injury cases. If you feel a certain way, pursue treatment. We recommend to clients to keep a daily pain and inconvenience journal, so we can see how they are progressing in their treatment.

Lawsuit Time: “Let’s Get It On!”

While this article was limited to what a victim of car accident can do to improve their case prior to their first legal consultation, I would be remiss if I did not include one final bit of information: choose an attorney that isn’t afraid of going to trial. If you don’t get the settlement offer that you are looking for (and is reasonable given prior settlements or verdicts), a knowledgeable Virginia car accident attorney would have no qualms about filing a lawsuit and making a request for appropriate damages to the judge or jury.

If, after negotiation with the insurance company and discussion with my client, we don’t get a settlement offer that is reasonable, then it may be time to file a lawsuit.

Occasionally, it may be advisable to cut the claims representatives out all together and file the lawsuit against the person that hurt you.

If the other driver’s insurance company doesn’t place the right value on your case, a jury of your peers may see that you internalized your pain, choosing not to be a burden on your family and friends, and assess damages a more reasonable way.

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Tips on Saving Money During Home Improvement Projects

Many people may think that it will cost lots to remodel home. As a matter of fact, home improvement will not cost you much as long as you know some useful tips. When you are deciding to remodel your home, try the following tips which can save you much money on home improvement.

Firstly, you should see which part of your home need an improvement. Go around and note down these parts. After a long-time usage, these parts need to be remodeled.

You can seek the help from your friends, especially from the friend who is an interior designer. They can give you lots of helpful advice on how to remodel your home effectively and economically. These advice may differ from one person to another. When this is in case, you should compare these tips to see which is more favorable to finish the entire project.

Hiring a good contractor is also very important. You would better find one you are familiar with. These contractors can do the job for cheaper prices. Keep in mind that you can hire these professionals at an favorable price when there is not much work going on in the neighborhood.

Repainting the ceiling or walls is one thing most people will do when remodeling their home. This is easy. You just need to buy some paint and find a time to do it. You should do the task weekly so that one area of the house is finished before moving on to the next.

Certainly, you can do your home improvement whenever you like, but remember you can save much money when you do it in the lean months.

What Is Modernization?

Modernization is the process of change in the sectors of the economy, politics and social systems. These changes reflects the movement of societies from a traditional stage to a more modern phase.

How does modernization occur?

Modernization occurs through:

1. Colonialism: this is an important reason for modernization. The Indian colonial master introduced the English language which was the first sign of modernization.

2. Migration: this is also a reason for modernization. This can especially be illustrated by the migration of Europeans to the colonies in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Aspects of modernization

The following points are the basic aspects of modernization:

1. The modern way of living: this happens when the old way of living changes into a modern way. Example replacement of mat with a dining table or replacement of pitcher with a water cooler.

2. Changes in residence: for the comfort of living, some people changed their residence from wooden huts to houses made with bricks.

3. Mass media: A communicate through narration has now being replaced by newspapers and internet.

4. Urbanization: The domestic migration to cities or urban areas from rural areas. Example: Just after the independence of Pakistan, 87% population was living in villages and 12% was in cities. But presently 68% lives rural ares and 32 % can be found in urban areas. This is one of the main characteristics of modernization.

5. Change of profession. In the beginning, the economy was agrarian in nature, but in due time industrialization occurred. This is another main feature of modernization: the rapid industrialization of societies.

6. literacy and education: a situation whereby the population literacy rates increase dramatically.

7. High per capital income: the significant rise of the per capital income is important due to the higher purchasing power of the people which will, in turn, boost significant economic growth.

Economic aspects of modernization

The economic aspect of modernization can be derived from the following points:

1. Money: this takes place when the barter system has now been replaced with paper money.

2. Wage system: this happens because in traditional societies wages were not connected to time whereas in modern societies wages became related to time.

3. Communication system: communication is compulsory for economic development. because communication is important for economic, social and political functioning.

4. Technology and its application: through modernization, the technology applied in daily lives of the people has replaced the old ways of doing things with manual/animal powert.

5. Preservation of food products: the storage of food and other products and the distribution of such items in a systematic way increases the consumption and production of food products..

Political modernization

Political modernization is regarded as the result of economic development and social mobilization.

Political modernization contains three elements:

1. Validation of authority

2. Development of political participation

3. Differentiation of structure

Characteristics of political modernization

The following are the most important characteristics of political modernization:

1. It increased the influence of a single Authority: with the process of political modernization, the influence of a single authority and its agencies increased and become widespread.

2. Variation of functions: political modernization has brought a clear picture of the differentiation function.

3. Ultimate power rest with the people: political modernization can be observed with the shifting of ultimate power to the people which occurred slowly and gradually.

4. Democratic values and principles become popular: Like Nelson Mandela said: one man, one vote and regular elections to clean up the political swamp.

5. Secularization of politics: the separation of religion and state.

Mentoring That Leaves an Indelible Imprint on Your Soul

Learning from books feeds our brains. Experience builds skills and expertise. Effective coaching shapes and drives the way we work and see the world. And then there is that wonderful, elusive sort of mentoring that leaves an indelible imprint on the soul. Here are the stories of two people who have provided me with the sort of coaching that leaves an indelible imprint on the soul, and a powerful impact on my life.

Maggie
Maggie was a tiny fireball, a real force of nature. She started a national movement after she retired from the Presbyterian Church, which she called forced termination from employment due to age. A number of us lived in shared housing with her in Philadelphia, and often worked with her on different projects. A savvy optimist with no rose-colored glasses, she would often say: “When you’re working on something important, you never let roadblocks deter you from your goal. If there’s a rock in the road, move it, go around it, or over it. And, if nothing else works, then tunnel under it.” And she did. In her old age, she was elected to the National Giraffe Heroes Project for sticking neck out, a commendation which was always a badge of honor for her.

Maggie led by example, demonstrating a model of passion, persistence and power. Whenever she would meet people after speaking engagements or workshops, she would ask them about what they were doing, show them why their work was important, and encourage them. People would walk away from those conversations excited and empowered, because Maggie had validated them, and told them their work had impact and value. She was very supportive to people working to make a positive difference in the world – and a well-researched, dramatic critic of those she found to be creating harm. When she died, a major national newspaper wrote that Maggie had no children. The newspaper was corrected by her friend and foundation executive who said “Maggie had thousands of children she nurtured over the years, spread across the country and the world.”

Michael
Michael is a retired publishing executive who has built many large publishing businesses over the years. An extremely successful businessman, he is surprisingly humble and self-deprecating about his many achievements. Even when he has been quite busy, Michael has always found the time to focus on his friends and colleagues with undivided attention. In talking with him, you feel like he has all the time in the world for you. He listens in such a way that, when he responds to you, it is with a very deep level of understanding.

Gentle with his suggestions and advice, Michael would share about strategies he had used that were successful without saying “you should do it this way.” He lets you figure out the connection between the strategies he used to successfully surmount challenges, and your own situation. When he suggests something, it is with grace and tact. Michael often says, “well, I’m sure you’ve already thought of this, and I was thinking… ” He would go on to describe an idea or solution that you hadn’t considered at all.

Michael has also been tireless in his giving to those in need, serving on many boards, and becoming involved in supporting and funding a wide range of community economic development projects. Some of our most well-known social enterprise and economic development nonprofits have grown under his tutelage. Almost always, he leverages both his volunteering and his philanthropy by involving others, and he’s engaged an untold number over the years. By doing so, he has shown many people new and exciting ways to make a difference in the world while building his base of support for those causes most dear to his heart.

Why This is Coaching That Leaves an Indelible Imprint on the Soul
Over the years, these two coaches became dear friends, and part of my “family of choice,” as Maggie so aptly termed it. Michael and I still talk on a regular basis, now more as peers who share about our lives, our work, our spiritual practice and those causes that are our passions. And though she is long gone, Maggie’s legacy can still be seen everywhere, and I often consider what she might say about an issue I find challenging. Modelling skills and strategies helpful to my professional development, they served as powerful coaches and examples. They have demonstrated purposeful and value-driven lives. Lives that make a difference in the world. And they have left an indelible imprint on my soul.

Thinking Like a Lawyer is the Key to Success in Law

They say if you want to be a successful lawyer you have to change the way you think. Now some people already think like lawyers so it makes sense they will make good attorneys. However, if you don’t think like a lawyer it’s important you start thinking like one. Indeed, one of the first things you need to do, is to understand that your time is worth money and you must bill for every single phone call, every letter you write, every e-mail you create, and try to turn even your social gatherings and meetings into potential marketing opportunities.

Now for most people, this would seem disingenuous, but if you want to be a standout attorney you need to change the way you think and to be more like the others that are in this field. The top attorneys are very careful to bill for every single second of every single day (some double and triple bill or so we are told, without any admission of guilt from any legal eagles). And they are very careful to call clients back right away and schedule a time to talk to them on the phone for as long as possible so they can bill them.

This is one of the keys to making lots of money if you’re in the legal profession. Another thing a lawyer needs to do is stop thinking about what is right and wrong, and start thinking about loopholes in the law and ways to get around the law for your clients. People that hire attorneys do so, so they can avoid the laws, manipulate the laws, or get around them.

This means that successful person in the law profession will need to constantly be thinking as they are listening to their clients and asking them questions and keeping the conversation going so they can bill for more hours. Please consider all this.

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Kancheepuram Silk Sarees Online Shopping

Kancheepuram Silk Class

If you are someone who is looking forward to getting yourself some traditional Kancheepuram sarees but don’t really know much about Indian ethnic fashion, then the best option for you is to get to know some information about Kanchipuram silk sarees. Kanjeevaram sarees come from the very popular city of Kanchipuram in the state of Tamil Nadu. The city is referred to as the ‘City of a thousand temples’. It is in the bylanes of this ancient city that the silk of the best quality is painstakingly handwoven to create this incredibly resplendent saree style.

The main raw materials used in the making of these sarees are pure mulberry silk threads, zari (gold and silver threads) as well as traditional dyes. Kancheepuram silk sarees are an integral part of marriages in South India. Suitable for women of all ages, types of functions and ceremonies, they form an integral part of every Indian Bride’s trousseau. These sarees are treasured so much that they are often passed down through several generations. The history of Kancheepuram silk has its origins about 400 years ago. The famous Chola King “Krishnadevaraya”greatly encouraged the trade of silk during his reign.

Although this splendid artform suffered a temporary setback during the French invasion in the 17th century, it gained momentum eventually. Kancheepuram sarees are highly sought after all over the globe. Their sheer exquisiteness attracts people from regions far and wide. The zari used as decorative features is a blend of gold and silver threads.

After realizing the importance of preserving this wonderful art and occupation and its tremendous potential, the State and Central Governments have taken various measures to protect these age-old art forms. Kancheepuram which is a town in Tamil Nadu with more than 150 years of weaving tradition is brimming with highly skilled artisans and craftsmen whose skills have been passed down through the generations. These sarees are characterized by gold dipped silver threads that are woven on premium quality silk.

Kancheepuram silk is thicker than almost most other silk varieties, and is therefore more expensive. The heavier the silk, the better the quality. Peacock and parrot are the most commonly featured motifs on Kancheepuram fabrics. Although lightweight kancheepuram sarees are also popular as they are easier to wear and more affordable, the traditional varieties are still the most sought-after.

Does the Age You Get Married Impact Divorce Rates?

There are many factors in a marriage that can cause or contribute to a divorce. The truth is, the causes for divorces in the United States, like relationships, are very complicated. Even though the divorce rate in America has dropped, in large part due to the Millennial Generation, there are numerous reasons why married couples do not make it until death do they part – one of which is the age they got married.

All Marriages Require Hard Work

Unfortunately marriages do not last based solely on personal chemistry or physical attraction. When you choose to get married, you are vowing to love your partner for better or worse. No one gets married expecting to divorce. However, studies have shown that variables such as age, income, employment status, and education have significant impacts on U.S. marriages.

How Age, Income, and Education Affect Divorce

According to The Institute for Family Studies the ideal age to get married is in your late twenties, but why? When you decide to get married at an older age, your odds of divorce decline because at this stage in your life you usually have a higher education, a more stable job and are more established financially. With a higher level of education, your potential to earn more money is greater. Couples who experience more tension in their marriage from things such as a lack of money and maturity, frequently find themselves turning what were just thoughts of divorce into a reality.

The Divorce Rate Is Dropping Thanks to Millennials

Younger Americans are waiting much longer to get married. The national median marriage age as of 2011 for a woman’s first marriage was 27 years old, and for men was 29 years old; the highest median marriage age in decades for men and the highest ever for women. In 2005 the national median marriage age for a woman’s first marriage was 25 and for men was 27.

Many young folks have decided not to get married at all and choose instead other arrangements. It is much more common now, and many consider it more convenient, to move in with his or her partner without having to worry about the social pressures from society to get married first. With the average divorce happening about 12 years in to the marriage, we will have to wait and see if this recent generation of newlyweds will continue to keep their vows.

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Types Of Genetic Disorders

Genetic disorders occur as a result of abnormalities or variations in the information encoded by the genes and chromosomes. As per the available information on genetic disorders, these disorders can be broadly classified into four different categories, which are as follows:

1. Single-gene Disorders: Also known as Mendellian or monogenic disorders, these occur when the changes or mutations occur in only a single gene. Some well-known examples of single-gene disorders include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Marfan syndrome, Huntington’s disease and hereditary hemochromatosis. Single gene disorders can be further classified into autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked dominant, X-linked recessive and Y-linked disorders.

2. Multifactorial Genetic Disorders: Also known as polygenic, these disorders occur as a result of mutations in multiple genes. These disorders are really complex, difficult to analyze and hard to treat. Some examples of multifactorial disorders include autism, coronary heart diseases, cleft palate, mental retardation, cancer and diabetes.

3. Chromosomal Disorders: These diseases occur as a result of abnormalities in the chromosomal structure such as missing or presence of extra copies of chromosomes. The most well-known chromosomal disorder is the Down syndrome or Trisomy 21 where a person has three copies of chromosome 21. Other examples include Klinefelter syndrome, Cri-du-Chat syndrome, Turner Syndrome and Williams’ syndrome.

4. Mitochondrial Disorders: These disorders occur when there are mutations in the mitochondrial DNA or the non-chromosomal DNA of the cell. These disorders are maternal in origin as only egg cells contribute mitochondria in a developing embryo. One very good example of a mitochondrial disorder is the Leber’s Hereditary Optic neuropathy.